2016-2017 School Year:



Classwork and Review 4/3-4/7



Homework

Due April 19th

Create a synthesis essay on the topic of the Fourth Estate and Social Media as a qualifier

with Rubric, Including Six Supplemental Excerpts, Charts, Graphs, Non-Print Media, etc.

Sample Template for Synthesis Prompt and MLA* Citation Format Below
*Use Reference Section in Microsoft Word for Citations in MLA or Other Citation Tool

Use this Rubric Template and Change Language for your Prompt


MLA References.PNG
Select MLA
MLA Selection.PNG
Manage Sources/Create a New Source
MLA Manage Sources.PNG
Insert in Box at Top of Page, Deleting other Sources from Current List, not Master Lis

For all Into the Wild Homework, Click the Wiki Page or the Hyperlink

Due Monday, 3/13, Annotate, 3-Bar and SOAPSTONE





Classwork 2/15




Due Monday, February 20th, Annotate, 3-Bar and SOAPStone



Due Friday, February 3rd The Myth of the Latin Woman, Annotate, Three-bar, SOAPStone




Due Wednesday, February 1st:

Read the Sedaris chapter below. Create a Three-bar with thesis and three rhetorical strategies in the header sections. Outline a SOAPSTone.



Optional Reading Assignment for January 16th:

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Read The Happy Life for January 11th; We will work on questions in class




Due Wednesday, January 11th Read The Gospel of Wealth, annotate (or take notes if you do not have a copy), Three-Bar and create SOAPSTone with thesis using chart below:






Due Monday, January 9th,

Bring in the following document with active annotations, Three-Bar, and using the SOAPSTone provided:





Due Friday, January 6th:

Read and annotate the following:



Homework due after the Holiday Break. Turn this in, handwritten only, in class, on Wednesday, January 4th. You may use your notes to accompany your exam on the same day.

Read this first.



Answer the following questions using the guidelines provided. Only handwritten responses will be accepted. The questions are located in the document.



Due Thursday, November 17, 2016

Read and Create a SOAPSTone using the template provided. Create a three-bar as you go





Due Wednesday, November 7, 2016 1-7



A Modest Proposal Questions 1-7.PNG

Due Monday, September 26, 2016

Read a printed copy and annotate:



We will watch this video together in class:


Due Wednesday, August 31st, read Letter from a Birmingham Jail. Annotate and/or take notes.



Take notes on

Ethos, Automatic Ethos,

and Building Ethos; Definitions for Wednesday




















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2015-2016 School Year

Due Monday, April 11th

Create a synthesis essay on the topic of Food Deserts, Food Insecurity, or The Impact of Poverty in Education

with Rubric, Including Six Supplemental Excerpts, Charts, Graphs, Non-Print Media, etc.

Sample Template for Synthesis Prompt and MLA* Citation Format Below
*Use Reference Section in Microsoft Word for Citations in MLA or Other Citation Tool

Use this Rubric Template and Change Language for your Prompt

Food Desert Wiki for Research Links


MLA References.PNG
Select MLA
MLA Selection.PNG
Manage Sources/Create a New Source
MLA Manage Sources.PNG
Insert in Box at Top of Page, Deleting other Sources from Current List, not Master List

Read for Class





Amy Tan's Mother Tongue

Amy Tan.jpg


Answer the following questions by Friday March 4th, 2016

Questions on Rhetoric and Style
1. Why does Tan open her essay by stating, “I am not a scholar of English or literature” but then state, in the next paragraph, “I am a writer”? What is the difference? How does she establish ethos by this juxtaposition?
2. At several points in her essay, Tan relates anecdotes. How do they further her argument? Be sure to consider the anecdotes regarding Tan giving a speech, the stockbroker, the CAT scan, and Tan’s experience with the SATs. What would be the impact of omitting one of them?
3. What is Tan’s strategy behind including a lengthy, direct quotation from her mother (para. 6) rather than paraphrasing what she said?
4. Tan criticizes herself twice in this essay. In paragraph 3, she quotes a speech she gave “filled with carefully wrought grammatical phrases, burdened, it suddenly seemed to me, with nominalized forms, past perfect tenses, conditional phrases. . . .” What are “nominalized forms, past perfect tenses, conditional phrases,” and why are they burdensome? At another point, Tan recalls a draft of The Joy Luck Club in which she wrote, “That was my mental quandary in its nascent state” (para. 20). Why does she call this “[a] terrible line”?
5. Although Tan clearly appeals to pathos through personal narration and characterization, she makes some appeals to logos. Identify them and describe their effect.
6. Tan divides the essay into three sections. Why? How do these resemble chapters?
7. How does Tan avoid stereotyping Asian Americans in general and Chinese in particular in this essay? If you believe she is guilty of some stereotyping, discuss examples.
8. Discuss how Tan broadens the essay’s relevance by going beyond just her personal experience and raising issues that would be germane to her audience.

Homework Due Friday, February 20th, 2015

Read Theodore Roosevelt's letter to his son, The Proper Place for Sports and create a T-Bar and Soapstone with a thesis statement reflecting the rhetorical approach used by the author in achieving a specific statement.


Homework Due Tuesday, February 23rd, 2016

Identify and evaluate the meaning of ad-hominem and then analyze the effectiveness of its use in the following excerpt in one hand-written paragraph:

ad-hominem.JPG

Into the Wild Homework on Separate Page due 2/15
Homework Due Thursday, February 11, 2016
Read for Class and Answer Questions 1-5


Homework Due Wednesday, February 10th, 2016



Barbie Doll Marge Piercy american poet, novelist, and activist marge Piercy (b. 1936) grew up in Michigan in a working class family during the Depression. She graduated from northwestern University with an ma and went on to write more than thirty books, including novels and volumes of poetry. She is known for her highly personal free verse and her themes of feminism and social protest. “Barbie Doll,” from her 1973 collection To Be of Use, comments on the popular icon — and children’s toy — of the same name.

Barbie Doll

This girlchild was born as usual
and presented dolls that did pee-pee

and miniature GE stoves and irons

and wee lipsticks the color of cherry candy.

Then in the magic of puberty, a classmate said:

You have a great big nose and fat legs.


She was healthy, tested intelligent,

possessed strong arms and back,

abundant sexual drive and manual dexterity.

She went to and fro apologizing.

Everyone saw a fat nose on thick legs.


She was advised to play coy,

exhorted to come on hearty,

exercise, diet, smile and wheedle.
Her good nature wore out

like a fan belt.

So she cut off her nose and her legs

and offered them up.


In the casket displayed on satin she lay

with the undertaker's cosmetics painted on,

a turned-up putty nose,

dressed in a pink and white nightie.

Doesn't she look pretty? everyone said.

Consummation at last.

To every woman a happy ending.
Marge Piercy

Create a SOAPStone on the poem

and answer the following questions:

Barbie Doll Questions.JPG


Due 2/8/2016
Read The Myth of the Latin Woman
Create a SOAPSTone and Three-Bar Analysis with Thesis and Devices Noted


Due 2/3/2016
Read Me Talk Pretty One Day
Create a SOAPSTone and T-Bar Analysis with Thesis



Due 2/1/2016
Read Serving in Florida and Create a SOAPSTone and T-Bar Analysis with Thesis


Due 1/25/2016
Read The Gospel of Wealth and Create a SOAPSTone and T-Bar Analysis with Thesis




Due 1/26/2016

Read The Happy Life and Preview In-Class Assignment/Answer Questions for Homework at Bottom of Page



Due 1/27/2016

Read Lifeboat Ethics and Annotate



Due 1/11/2016

Print and Annotate Civil Disobedience by Thoreau for Class on Monday, January 11th



Due 1/6/2016

Read Emerson's Education and Annotate; Prepare for Class Discussion with Questions




Read Where I Lived and What I Lived For on page 276-281 in the text. Answer 1-8 below in the section marked Rhetoric and Style.


Questions on Rhetoric and Style
1. In the first paragraph, what does Thoreau declare as his higher purpose?
2. Cite and explain the antitheses in the first paragraph.
3. What are the meanings of dear and mean as used in paragraph one?
4. What is the rhetorical effect of the similes in paragraph two?
5. Describe the extended metaphor in paragraph two. What effect does it have?
6. What effect does Thoreau create with his repetitions? Cite several examples.
7. What paradox does Thoreau develop concerning the railroad in paragraph two?
8. Paragraph three begins with a rhetorical question. How effectively does the rest of the paragraph answer it?

Read A Modest Proposal, perform T-Bar Analysis, and answer questions.



Answer the following:

1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8,11,12
A Modest Proposal Questions.png

Homework Due 9/30/2015

Homework

Short Simple Sentences

Short Simple Sentences A simple sentence, strictly defined, has a subject and verb: it consists of one independent clause. A simple sentence may have a compound subject, a compound verb, a modifier, and an object or a complement, but it still is one independent clause. Sometimes simple sentences can be rather long: The e-mails and phone messages addressed to my former self come from a distant race of people with exotic concerns and far too much time on their hands.

Sentence Fragments


A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence, often the result of careless writing; an effective fragment, however, is an incomplete sentence that readers understand to be complete. Some fragments are missing a subject, a verb, or both; other fragments have a subject and verb but are dependent clauses. Posing a question is a common use for fragments, but they can also be used to express doubt, surprise, shock, or perhaps outrage, as in this example from Fareed Zakaria:
And in the Great Recession, it has been these middle-class folks who have been hammered. Why? This one-word fragment, another question, has neither a subject nor a verb. If we added a subject and verb to make it a complete sentence, it might read like this: And in the Great Recession, it has been these middle-class folks who have been hammered.
Why is this the case? In the following example, Phyllis Rose poses a rhetorical question with a fragment: When a Solzhenitsyn rants about American materialism, I have to look at my digital Timex and check what year this is. Materialism? Lest you think that fragments are more common to contemporary than classic writing, consider this example from Thoreau: When a man is warmed by the several modes which I have described, what does he want next? Surely not more warmth of the same kind, as more and richer food, larger and more splendid houses, finer and more abundant clothing, more numerous incessant and hotter fires, and the like.

Using Short Sentences Rhetorically

A series of simple sentences can become monotonous, but one or two short simple sentences can be rhetorically effective in a number of situations: • after several long sentences • as a summary of what the writer has just said • as a transition between sentences or paragraphs Essentially, one or two short simple sentences create emphasis by contrast. As a writer, when you juxtapose one or two short simple sentences with several longer ones, you call attention to the short simple ones. Consider this example from Dubner and Levitt:

A key fact of white-collar crime is that we hear about only the very slim fraction of people who are caught. Most embezzlers lead quiet and theoretically happy lives; employees who steal company property are rarely detected. With street crime, meanwhile, that is not the case. A mugging or a burglary or a murder is usually counted whether or not the criminal is caught. A street crime has a victim, who typically reports the crime to the police, which generates data, which in turn generate thousands of academic papers by criminologists, sociologists and economists. But white-collar crime presents no obvious victim. Whom, exactly, did the masters of Enron steal from? And how can you measure something if you don’t know to whom it happened, or with what frequency, or in what magnitude?


Notice how the short simple sentences of the second paragraph (each structured simply as subject + adjective, subject + direct object, and subject + complement) stand out after the longer sentences of the previous paragraph. Their similar structure adds even more emphasis. In some instances, writers choose to use sentence fragments, especially short ones. Although most of the time you will avoid fragments, occasionally you might use one for effect. What’s important is that you use the fragment as you would use a short simple sentence — deliberately, for a special reason:
• to make a transition • to signal a conclusion
• to economize expression
• to emphasize an important point
A word of caution, however. Use both short simple sentences and fragments sparingly. Used intentionally and infrequently, both can be effective. Overused, they lose their punch or become more of a gimmick than a valuable technique. Also, consider whether your audience will interpret a fragment as a grammatical error. If you are confident that your audience will recognize your deliberate use of a fragment, then use it. But if you think your instructor or reader will assume you made a mistake, then it’s better to write a complete sentence. Again, if you use fragments infrequently, then your audience is more likely to know you’re deliberately choosing what is technically an incomplete sentence.

• EXERCiSE 1 • Identify the simple sentences in the following selection from “In the Strawberry Fields” by Eric Schlosser.
The few remaining labor camps for single men are grim places. I toured one that was a group of whitewashed buildings surrounded by chain-link fences and barbed wire. Desolate except for a rosebush in front of the manager’s office, it looked like a holding pen or an old minimum-security prison. A nearby camp was reputed to be one of the best of its kind. Inside the barracks, the walls were freshly painted and the concrete floor was clean. A typical room was roughly twelve feet by ten feet, unheated, and occupied by four men. Sheets of plywood separated the steel cots. For $80 a week, a price far too high for most migrants, you got a bed and two meals a day. I’ve seen nicer horse barns. Nevertheless, the labor camps are often preferable to the alternatives. When migrants stay in residential neighborhoods, they must pool their resources. In Watsonville three to four families will share a small house, seven or eight people to a room. Migrants routinely pay $100 to $200 a month to sleep in a garage with anywhere from four to ten other people. A survey of garages in Soledad found 1,500 inhabitants — a number roughly equal to one-eighth of the town’s official population. At the peak of the harvest the housing shortage becomes acute. Migrants at the labor camps sometimes pay to sleep in parked cars. The newest migrant workers, who lack family in the area and haven’t yet learned the ropes, often sleep outdoors in the wooded sections of Prunedale, trespassing, moving to a different hiding place each night. On hillsides above the Salinas Valley, hundreds of strawberry pickers have been found living in caves.

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2015-2015 School Year

Homework and Documents

Due Thursday, April 16th

Create a synthesis prompt, supporting documents, and scoring rubric using the guidelines below and samples found on the AP Writing Rubric Page.

This homework involves creating a unique synthesis prompt in the AP format with a minimum of six supporting documents and/or non-print texts, as well as a clear rubric for grading. You will find this homework on the planner with a link to the AP Writing Samples and Rubric page. There, you will find samples to be used as a template. Recap:

1-Prompt in the exact AP format

2-Six to seven comparable supplements as found with the prompt

3-One scoring rubric in the exact AP format, unique to your prompt with specific reference to the task.


This homework assignment counts as both a quiz and a homework assignment. Remember, creating and generating new ideas is the highest level of Bloom's Taxonomy (Higher Order Thinking Skills).



Please read "The Crucible" in entirety for Monday, April 20th. Suggestion: Have all documents printed to complete as you proceed through "The Crucible."

Pacing guidelines for work 4/10

4/13

4/15

4/18


Turn in the Packet on 4/23 for a Project Grade

Homework Due Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Read the following, create SOAPStone with thesis and evidence, and a T-Bar with essay outline




Homework Due Wednesday, March 18, 2015

Read the following, create a SOAPSTone with thesis, and a T-Bar with essay outline


Homework Due Wednesday, March 11, 2015
What Is Argument? From Bedford-Martin
Although we have been discussing argument in previous chapters, the focus has been primarily on rhetorical appeals and style. We’ll continue examining those elements, but here we take a closer look at an argument’s claim, evidence, and organization. Let’s start with some definitions. What is argument? Is it a conflict?
A contest between opposing forces to prove the other side wrong? A battle with words? Or is it, rather, a process of reasoned inquiry and rational discourse seeking common ground? If it is the latter, then we engage in argument whenever we explore ideas rationally and think clearly about the world. Yet these days argument is often no more than raised voices interrupting one another, exaggerated assertions without inadequate support, and scanty evidence from sources that lack credibility. We might call this “crazed rhetoric,” as political commentator Tom Toles does in the following cartoon.
A cartoon appeared on January 16, 2011, a few days after Arizona congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords was the victim of a shooting; six people were killed and another thirteen injured. Many people saw this tragedy as stemming from vitriolic political discourse that included violent language. Toles argues that Uncle Sam, and thus the country, is in danger of being devoured by “crazed rhetoric.” There may not be a “next trick” or a “taming” if the rhetorical lion continues to roar. Is Toles’s view exaggerated? Whether you answer yes or no to that question, it seems quite clear that partisanship and polarization often hold sway over dialogue and civility when people think of argument. In our discussions, however, we define argument as a persuasive discourse, a coherent and considered movement from a claim to a conclusion. The goal of this chapter is to avoid thinking of argument as a zero-sum game of winners and losers but, instead, to see it as a means of better understanding other people’s ideas as well as your own. In Chapter 1 we discussed concession and refutation as a way to acknowledge a counterargument, and we want to re-emphasize the usefulness of that approach.
Viewing anyone who disagrees with you as an adversary makes it very likely that the conversation will escalate into an emotional clash, and treating opposing ideas disrespectfully rarely results in mutual understanding. Twentieth-century psychologist Carl Rogers stressed the importance of replacing confrontational argument tactics with ones that promote negotiation, compromise, and cooperation. Rogerian arguments are based on the assumption that having a full understanding of an opposing position is essential to responding to it persuasively and refuting it in a way that is accommodating rather than alienating. Ultimately, the goal of a Rogerian argument is not to destroy your opponents or dismantle their viewpoints but rather to reach a satisfactory conclusion.

Staking a Claim

Every argument has a claim — also called an assertion or proposition — that states the argument’s main idea or position. A claim differs from a topic or a subject in that a claim has to be arguable. It can’t just be a simple statement of fact; it has to state a position that some people might disagree with and others might agree with. Going from a simple topic to a claim means stating your informed opinion about a topic. In the essay you just read, the general topic is social investing — specifically, social investing in the fast-food industry. The arguable claim, however, is that investing in fast-food companies can be socially responsible. Notice that the topic may be a single word or a phrase, but the arguable claim has to be stated as a complete sentence. It’s important to note that neither a published author nor a student writer is likely to develop a strong claim without exploring a topic through reading about it, discussing it with others, brainstorming, taking notes, and rethinking. After looking into a topic thoroughly, then you are ready to develop a position on an
For example, let’s use the topic of single-sex classrooms. You will notice, first of all, that a simple statement of the topic does not indicate whether you support the notion or challenge it. Let’s consider several directions to take with this topic.
• Many schools have single-sex classrooms.
• Single-sex classrooms have been around for years, especially in private schools.
• Single-sex classrooms are ineffective because they do not prepare students for the realities of the workplace.
The first statement may be true, but it is easily verified and not arguable; thus, it is simply a topic and not a claim. The second statement has more detail, but it’s easy to verify whether it is true or not. Since it is not arguable, it is not a claim. The third statement is a claim because it is arguable. It argues that single sex classrooms are ineffective and that preparation for the workplace is an important way to measure the effectiveness of an education. There are those who would disagree with both statements and those who would agree with both. Thus, it presents an arguable position and is a viable claim.
ACTIVITY • For each of the following statements, evaluate whether it is arguable or too easily verifiable to develop into an effective argument.
Try revising the ones you consider too easily verifiable to make them into arguable claims.
1. SUV owners should be required to pay an energy surcharge.
2. Charter schools are an alternative to public schools.
3. Ronald Reagan was the most charismatic president of the twentieth century.
4. Requiring students to wear uniforms improves school spirit.
5. The terms global warming and climate change describe different perspectives on this complex issue.
6. Students graduating from college today can expect to have more debt than any previous generation.
7. People who read novels are more likely to attend sports events and movies than those who do not.
8. Print newspapers will not survive another decade.
9. The competition among countries to become a site for the Olympic Games is fierce.
10. Plagiarism is a serious problem in today’s schools.

Homework Due Thursday, March 12, 2015

Homework

Claims of Fact


Types of Claims Typically, we speak of three types of claims: claims of fact, claims of value, and claims of policy. Each type can be used to guide entire arguments, which we would call arguments of fact, arguments of value, and arguments of policy. While it is helpful to separate the three for analysis, in practice it is not always that simple. Indeed, it is quite common for an argument to include more than one type of claim, as you will see in the following examples. Claims of Fact Claims of fact assert that something is true or not true. You can’t argue whether Zimbabwe is in Africa or whether restaurants on Main Street serve more customers at breakfast than at lunch. These issues can be resolved and verified — in the first case by checking a map, in the second through observation or by checking sales figures. You can, however, argue that Zimbabwe has an unstable government or that restaurants on Main Street are more popular with older patrons than younger ones. Those statements are arguable: What does “unstable” mean? What does “popular” mean? Who is “older” and who is “younger”? Arguments of fact often pivot on what exactly is “factual.” Facts become arguable when they are questioned, when they raise controversy, when they challenge people’s beliefs. “It’s a fact that the Social Security program will go bankrupt by 2025” is a claim that could be developed in an argument of fact. Very often, so-called facts are a matter of interpretation. At other times, new “facts” call into question older ones. The claim that cell phones increase the incidence of brain tumors, for instance, requires sifting through new “facts” from medical research and scrutinizing who is carrying out the research, who is supporting it financially, and so on. Whenever you are evaluating or writing an argument of fact, it’s important to approach your subject with a healthy skepticism. In “Why Investing in Fast Food May Be a Good Thing,” Domini makes two claims of fact. The argument in paragraph 3 is guided by the claim of fact that “fast food is a way of life.” Is it? She supports this claim with sales statistics and information on the growth of this industry. Paragraph 4 is guided by the claim of fact that “fast food is a global phenomenon.” She supports this claim with an explanation of fast-food restaurants opening “in nearly every country” and a specific example discussing the changing diet in Greece. We commonly see arguments of fact that challenge stereotypes or social beliefs. For instance, in Chapter 8, Gender, there is an argument of fact by Matthias Mehl and his colleagues about whether women are more talkative than men (p. 557). Mehl and his colleagues recorded conversations and concluded that the differences are, in fact, very minor. Their findings call into question the stereotype that women are excessively chatty and more talkative than their male counterparts. Mehl’s essay is a clear argument of fact that re-evaluates earlier “facts” and challenges a social myth.

Claims of Value Perhaps the most common type of claim is a claim of value, which argues that something is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable. Of course, just like any other claim, a claim of value must be arguable. Claims of value may be personal judgments based on taste, or they may be more objective evaluations based on external criteria. For instance, if you argue that Brad Pitt is the best leading man in Hollywood, that is simply a matter of taste. The criteria for what is “best” and what defines a “leading man” are strictly personal. Another person could argue that while Pitt might be the best-looking actor in Hollywood, Leonardo DiCaprio is more highly paid and his movies tend to make more money. That is an evaluation based on external criteria — dollars and cents. To develop an argument from a claim of value, you must establish specific criteria or standards and then show to what extent the subject meets your criteria. Amy Domini’s argument is largely one of value as she supports her claim that investing in fast-food companies can be a positive thing. The very title of Domini’s essay suggests a claim of value: “Why Investing in Fast Food May Be a Good Thing.” She develops her argument by explaining the impact that such investing can have on what food choices are available, and what the impact of those choices is. Entertainment reviews — of movies, television shows, concerts, books — are good examples of arguments developed from claims of value. Take a look at this one, movie critic Roger Ebert’s 1977 review of the first Star Wars movie. He raved. Notice how he states his four-star claim — it’s a great movie! — in several ways throughout the argument and sets up his criteria at each juncture. Star Wars roger ebert Ebert’s claim of value. Stated more formally, it might read: “Star Wars is so good that it will completely draw you in.”
Activity for Homework:
• ACTIVITY • Find a review of a movie, a television show, a concert, an album or a song, or another form of popular culture. Identify the claim in the review. What criteria does the reviewer use to justify a thumbs-up or a thumbs-down?
Claims of Policy Anytime you propose a change, you’re making a claim of policy. It might be local: A group at your school proposes to raise money to contribute to a school in Haiti. You want your parents to let you spend more time with friends on weeknights. Or it might be a bigger issue such as a proposal for transitioning to alternative energy sources, a change in copyright laws for digital music, a shift in foreign policy, a change in legislation to allow former felons to vote. An argument of policy generally begins with a definition of the problem (claim of fact), explains why it is a problem (claim of value), and then explains the change that needs to happen (claim of policy). Also, keep in mind that while an argument of policy usually calls for some direct action to take place, it may be a recommendation for a change in attitude or viewpoint. Let’s take a look at the opening paragraphs of an argument of policy. In this piece, published in 1999 in Newsweek, Anna Quindlen argues for a change in attitude toward the treatment of mental illness. Notice how she combines claims of fact and value to ground her claim of policy — that is, that attitudes toward mental illness must change so that treatment options become more available.
Quindlen calls for “ending the ignorance” about mental health and its care. As she develops her argument, she supports this claim of policy by considering both personal examples and general facts about mental health in America. To arrive at this claim of policy, however, she first makes a claim of value — “There’s a plague on all our houses”: that is, this is a problem deserving of our attention. She then offers a claim of fact that demonstrates the scope of the problem: teenage suicide and homicide in the last decades have “exploded.” Granted, all three of these claims need to be explained with appropriate evidence, and Quindlen does that in subsequent paragraphs; but at the outset, she establishes claims of value and fact that lay the foundation for the claim of policy that is the main idea of her argument.
From Claim to Thesis To develop a claim into a thesis statement, you have to be more specific about what you intend to argue. In her essay “The C Word in the Hallways,” Anna Quindlen states her main idea explicitly: Yet one solution continues to elude us, and that is ending the ignorance about mental health, and moving it from the margins of care and into the mainstream where it belongs. As surely as any vaccine, this would save lives. The “policy” that Quindlen advocates changing is removing the stigma from mental illness so it can be properly treated. Her second sentence emphasizes her thesis by drawing an analogy: just as vaccines save lives by preventing disease, a shift in policy toward mental illness would save lives by preventing violence.
Sometimes in professional essays the claim may be implicit, but in the formal essays that you will write for your classes, the claim is traditionally stated explicitly as a one-sentence thesis statement that appears in the introduction of your argument. To be effective, a thesis statement must preview the essay by encapsulating in clear, unambiguous language the main point or points the writer intends to make. Let’s consider several different types of thesis statements: a closed thesis, an open thesis, and a thesis that includes the counterargument. Closed Thesis Statements A closed thesis is a statement of the main idea of the argument that also previews the major points the writer intends to make. It is “closed” because it limits the number of points the writer will make. For instance, here is a closed thesis on the appeal of the Harry Potter book series: The three-dimensional characters, exciting plot, and complex themes of the Harry Potter series make them not only legendary children’s books but enduring literary classics. This thesis asserts that the series constitutes a “literary classic” and specifies three reasons — characters, plot, and theme — each of which would be discussed in the argument. A closed thesis often includes (or implies) the word because. This one might have been written as follows: The Harry Potter series has become legendary children’s books and enduring literary classics because of its three-dimensional characters, exciting plot, and complex themes. Indeed, that statement might be a good working thesis. A closed thesis is a reliable way to focus a short essay, particularly one written under time constraints. Explicitly stating the points you’ll make can help you organize your thoughts when you are working against the clock, and it can be a way to address specific points that are required by the prompt or argument. Open Thesis Statements If, however, you are writing a longer essay with five, six, or even more main points, then an open thesis is probably more effective. An open thesis is one that does not list all the points the writer intends to cover in an essay. If you have six or seven points in an essay, for instance, stringing them all out in the thesis will be awkward; plus, while a reader can remember two or three main points, it’s confusing to keep track of a whole string of points made way back in an opening paragraph. For instance, you might argue that the Harry Potter series is far from an enduring classic because you think the main characters are either all good or all bad rather than a bit of both, the minor characters devolve into caricatures, the plot is repetitious and formulaic, the magic does not follow a logical system of rules, and so on. Imagine trying to line all those ideas up in a sentence or two having any clarity and grace at all. By making the overall point without actually stating every subpoint, an open thesis can guide an essay without being cumbersome: The popularity of the Harry Potter series demonstrates that simplicity trumps complexity when it comes to the taste of readers, both young and old. Counterargument Thesis Statements A variant of the open and closed thesis is the counterargument thesis, in which a summary of a counterargument usually qualified by although or but precedes the writer’s opinion. This type of thesis has the advantage of immediately addressing the counterargument. Doing so may make an argument seem both stronger and more reasonable. It may also create a seamless transition to a more thorough concession and refutation of the counterargument later in the argument. Using the Harry Potter example again, let’s look at a counterargument thesis: Although the Harry Potter series may have some literary merit, its popularity has less to do with storytelling than with merchandising. This thesis concedes a counterargument that the series “may have some literary merit” before refuting that claim by saying that the storytelling itself is less popular than the movies, toys, and other merchandise that the books inspired. The thesis promises some discussion of literary merit and a critique of its storytelling (concession and refutation) but will ultimately focus on the role of the merchandising machine in making Harry Potter a household name. Note that the thesis that considers a counterargument can also lead to a position that is a modification or qualification rather than an absolute statement of support or rejection. If, for instance, you were asked to discuss whether the success of the Harry Potter series has resulted in a reading renaissance, this thesis would let you respond not with a firm “yes” or “no,” but with a qualification of “in some respects.” It would allow you to ease into a critique by first recognizing its strengths before leveling your criticism that the popularity was the result of media hype rather than quality and thus will not result in a reading renaissance.
• ACTIVITY • Develop a thesis statement that could focus an argument in response to each of the following prompts. Discuss why you think that the structure (open, closed, counterargument) you chose would be appropriate or effective.
1. Same-sex classrooms have gone in and out of favor in public education. Write an essay explaining why you would support or oppose same-sex classrooms for public schools in grades 10 through 12.
2. Write an essay supporting, challenging, or qualifying English author E. M. Forster’s position in the following quotation: “I hate the idea of causes, and if I had to choose between betraying my country and betraying my friend, I hope I should have the guts to betray my country.”
3. Today’s world is full of conflicts and controversies. Choose a local or global issue, and write an essay that considers multiple viewpoints and proposes a solution or compromise.
. Write an essay explaining why you agree or disagree with the following quotation: “Advertising degrades the people it appeals to; it deprives them of their will to choose.”
5. Plagiarism is rampant in public high schools and colleges. In fact, some people argue that the definition of plagiarism has changed with the proliferation of the Internet. Write an essay explaining what you believe the appropriate response of a teacher should be to a student who turns in a plagiarized essay or exam.

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Homework Due Thursday, March 5th

Prior to reading; introduction to Amy Tan in Class



Locate the letter at this link:
http://www.bartleby.com/53/29.html

Homework Due Wednesday, February 11th, 2015



Barbie Doll Marge Piercy american poet, novelist, and activist marge Piercy (b. 1936) grew up in Michigan in a working class family during the Depression. She graduated from northwestern University with an ma and went on to write more than thirty books, including novels and volumes of poetry. She is known for her highly personal free verse and her themes of feminism and social protest. “Barbie Doll,” from her 1973 collection To Be of Use, comments on the popular icon — and children’s toy — of the same name.

Barbie Doll

This girlchild was born as usual

and presented dolls that did pee-pee

and miniature GE stoves and irons

and wee lipsticks the color of cherry candy.

Then in the magic of puberty, a classmate said:

You have a great big nose and fat legs.


She was healthy, tested intelligent,

possessed strong arms and back,

abundant sexual drive and manual dexterity.

She went to and fro apologizing.

Everyone saw a fat nose on thick legs.


She was advised to play coy,

exhorted to come on hearty,

exercise, diet, smile and wheedle.

Her good nature wore out

like a fan belt.

So she cut off her nose and her legs

and offered them up.


In the casket displayed on satin she lay

with the undertaker's cosmetics painted on,

a turned-up putty nose,

dressed in a pink and white nightie.

Doesn't she look pretty? everyone said.

Consummation at last.

To every woman a happy ending.
Marge Piercy

Create a SOAPStone on the poem

and answer the following questions:

Barbie Doll Questions.JPG

Homework Due Thursday, February 12th

Read all pages and answer questions 1,3,4, in complete sentences, citing examples to bolster your response.

Just Walk on By 1.JPG
Just Walk on By 2.JPG
Just Walk on By 3.JPG
Just Walk on By 4.JPG
Just Walk on By Questions.JPG

Homework Due Wednesday, February 4th, 2015

Perform a T-Bar Analysis using the information provided below:

Text:






Homework Due Monday, February 9th, 2015 Perform a SOAPStone and T-Bar Analysis using the information provided below:

Remember to include literary terms and textual support in your analysis.

Text:





There will be an assessment with this assignment.


Homework on "The Happy Life" Due Wednesday, January, 28th, 2015

File Not Found
File Not Found


Homework on Ehrenreich's Serving in Florida due Monday, February 2, 2015

There will be an assessment on this excerpt



1.Consider the use of setting by the author. Track the descriptive imagery in the beginning, middle, and end of the essay, using specific examples, and evaluate how diction reflects her tone. Explain/defend your choices.

2.What is Ehrenreich's tone toward her coworkers? Locate three instances of word choice, or diction, that reflects her tone and synthesize with another device to further your examination of her tone.

3-In every literary work, there is a shift whereby a characters see the world, or themselves, in a transformed, or new, light. Locate a specific passage where a shift occurs. Provide a least two textual examples and indicate how this shift reflects the overall theme of the work.

4-According to Ehrenreich, who is to blame for the situation of those who work at low-paying jobs in restaurants? Indicate which rhetorical devices she uses to strengthen her point and use examples from the text. Do you agree with her position? Are there heroes or villains, or does the workplace itself change the people who part of it. Support your answer with evidence from the text.

5-Re-read the opening text and evaluate the approach for rhetoric and style. Indicate at least two devices that work in tandem to make a singular point. Cite textual support as you clearly evaluate the approach of the author in reaching her audience. Was she successful.

6- Locate three transitions in the author's argument. Identify the major points of the argument and then refer back to the theme of the excerpt. Indicate the theme in your answer and evaluate whether or not the author was able to maintain her focus and organization without alienating the reader.

7-In this selection, Ehrenreich does not state a thesis or indicate directly what her purpose is; instead, she works by inference and implication. What is her purpose? State her purpose explicitly in a sentence.

8-Indicate the author's greatest appeal and defend your claim with textual support and explanation of impact.


Please note that all assignments are to be handwritten in preparation for the AP Exam.

Homework due Monday, January 12, 2015 This is suggested to be read in advance with work done over a period of days. In essence, this is a multiple day assignment. Answer all Questions for Discussion and Questions on Rhetoric and Style. You may then choose between numbers three and four under Suggestions for Writing and provide a brief, one-paragraph response. The questions are embedded in the PDF with the reading and are not in a separate document.



There will be an assessment on this reading on Monday, January 12, 2015


Homework due Friday, January 16, 2015. This is suggested to be read in advance over a period of days. In essence, this is a multiple day assignment. Answer the questions below the reading.There will be an assessment on Friday.

Questions on Rhetoric and Style
1. What is King’s tone in the opening paragraph? How might you make an argument for its being ironic?
2. How do King’s allusions to biblical figures and events appeal to both ethos and pathos?
3 On page three, King goes to great lengths to evaluate just and unjust laws. Consider his approach and compare his argument to that of the characters in The Great Debaters. Evaluate the effective of the argument in the document and the movie.
7. What rhetorical strategies are used in the long paragraph at the end of page two? Identify at least four.
9. Why does King wait until the end to address the alleged commendable behavior of the Birmingham police in “preventing violence”?

Homework Due January 27th

This is a multiple step assignment that culminates in an in-class quiz.

Step one is to read Jonathan Swift's text while answering the reading guide questions.This requires documents one and two below.



Step two involves completing the chart and answering the questions in the third document below. Please notes that you are proposing an essay of your own; however, you are not writing an essay.


The final step will include a ten question, multiple choice assessment.


Homework due after the Holiday Break. Turn this in, handwritten only, in class, on Tuesday, January 6th. You may use your notes to accompany your exam on the same day.

Read this first.



Answer the following questions using the guidelines provided. Only handwritten responses will be accepted. The questions are located in the document.


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Homework


Read and annotate:

We will watch this together in class:


Homework and Documentation


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Chapters 20 and 21.PNG
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Weekend Homework
Questions for homework:

Questions on Rhetoric and Style
1. What is King’s tone in the opening paragraph? How might you make an argument for its being ironic?
3. How do King’s allusions to biblical figures and events appeal to both ethos and pathos?
6. In the long sentence in paragraph 14 (beginning with “But when you have seen”), why does King arrange the “when” clauses in the order that he does? Try repositioning them, and then discuss the difference in effect.
7. What rhetorical strategies are used in paragraph 25? Identify at least four.
9. Why does King wait until paragraph 45 to address the alleged commendable behavior of the Birmingham police in “preventing violence”?

Homework

Use this rubric as a guideline to "talk to the text"


Page 56 Moth Activity.JPG


NY Times Article

Homework
What Is Argument? From Bedford-Martin
Although we have been discussing argument in previous chapters, the focus has been primarily on rhetorical appeals and style. We’ll continue examining those elements, but here we take a closer look at an argument’s claim, evidence, and organization. Let’s start with some definitions. What is argument? Is it a conflict?
A contest between opposing forces to prove the other side wrong? A battle with words? Or is it, rather, a process of reasoned inquiry and rational discourse seeking common ground? If it is the latter, then we engage in argument whenever we explore ideas rationally and think clearly about the world. Yet these days argument is often no more than raised voices interrupting one another, exaggerated assertions without adequate support, and scanty evidence from sources that lack credibility. We might call this “crazed rhetoric,” as political commentator Tom Toles does in the following cartoon.
A cartoon appeared on January 16, 2011, a few days after Arizona congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords was the victim of a shooting; six people were killed and another thirteen injured. Many people saw this tragedy as stemming from vitriolic political discourse that included violent language. Toles argues that Uncle Sam, and thus the country, is in danger of being devoured by “crazed rhetoric.” There may not be a “next trick” or a “taming” if the rhetorical lion continues to roar. Is Toles’s view exaggerated? Whether you answer yes or no to that question, it seems quite clear that partisanship and polarization often hold sway over dialogue and civility when people think of argument. In our discussions, however, we define argument as a persuasive discourse, a coherent and considered movement from a claim to a conclusion. The goal of this chapter is to avoid thinking of argument as a zero-sum game of winners and losers but, instead, to see it as a means of better understanding other people’s ideas as well as your own. In Chapter 1 we discussed concession and refutation as a way to acknowledge a counterargument, and we want to re-emphasize the usefulness of that approach.
Viewing anyone who disagrees with you as an adversary makes it very likely that the conversation will escalate into an emotional clash, and treating opposing ideas disrespectfully rarely results in mutual understanding. Twentieth-century psychologist Carl Rogers stressed the importance of replacing confrontational argument tactics with ones that promote negotiation, compromise, and cooperation. Rogerian arguments are based on the assumption that having a full understanding of an opposing position is essential to responding to it persuasively and refuting it in a way that is accommodating rather than alienating. Ultimately, the goal of a Rogerian argument is not to destroy your opponents or dismantle their viewpoints but rather to reach a satisfactory conclusion.

Staking a Claim

Every argument has a claim — also called an assertion or proposition — that states the argument’s main idea or position. A claim differs from a topic or a subject in that a claim has to be arguable. It can’t just be a simple statement of fact; it has to state a position that some people might disagree with and others might agree with. Going from a simple topic to a claim means stating your informed opinion about a topic. In the essay you just read, the general topic is social investing — specifically, social investing in the fast-food industry. The arguable claim, however, is that investing in fast-food companies can be socially responsible. Notice that the topic may be a single word or a phrase, but the arguable claim has to be stated as a complete sentence. It’s important to note that neither a published author nor a student writer is likely to develop a strong claim without exploring a topic through reading about it, discussing it with others, brainstorming, taking notes, and rethinking. After looking into a topic thoroughly, then you are ready to develop a position on an
For example, let’s use the topic of single-sex classrooms. You will notice, first of all, that a simple statement of the topic does not indicate whether you support the notion or challenge it. Let’s consider several directions to take with this topic.
• Many schools have single-sex classrooms.
• Single-sex classrooms have been around for years, especially in private schools.
• Single-sex classrooms are ineffective because they do not prepare students for the realities of the workplace.
The first statement may be true, but it is easily verified and not arguable; thus, it is simply a topic and not a claim. The second statement has more detail, but it’s easy to verify whether it is true or not. Since it is not arguable, it is not a claim. The third statement is a claim because it is arguable. It argues that single sex classrooms are ineffective and that preparation for the workplace is an important way to measure the effectiveness of an education. There are those who would disagree with both statements and those who would agree with both. Thus, it presents an arguable position and is a viable claim.
ACTIVITY • For each of the following statements, evaluate whether it is arguable or too easily verifiable to develop into an effective argument.
Try revising the ones you consider too easily verifiable to make them into arguable claims.
1. SUV owners should be required to pay an energy surcharge.
2. Charter schools are an alternative to public schools.
3. Ronald Reagan was the most charismatic president of the twentieth century.
4. Requiring students to wear uniforms improves school spirit.
5. The terms global warming and climate change describe different perspectives on this complex issue.
6. Students graduating from college today can expect to have more debt than any previous generation.
7. People who read novels are more likely to attend sports events and movies than those who do not.
8. Print newspapers will not survive another decade.
9. The competition among countries to become a site for the Olympic Games is fierce.
10. Plagiarism is a serious problem in today’s schools.


Amy Tan's Mother Tongue

Amy Tan.jpg


Answer the following questions by Thursday, March 5th, 2015

Questions on Rhetoric and Style
1. Why does Tan open her essay by stating, “I am not a scholar of English or literature” but then state, in the next paragraph, “I am a writer”? What is the difference? How does she establish ethos by this juxtaposition?
2. At several points in her essay, Tan relates anecdotes. How do they further her argument? Be sure to consider the anecdotes regarding Tan giving a speech, the stockbroker, the CAT scan, and Tan’s experience with the SATs. What would be the impact of omitting one of them?
3. What is Tan’s strategy behind including a lengthy, direct quotation from her mother (para. 6) rather than paraphrasing what she said?
4. Tan criticizes herself twice in this essay. In paragraph 3, she quotes a speech she gave “filled with carefully wrought grammatical phrases, burdened, it suddenly seemed to me, with nominalized forms, past perfect tenses, conditional phrases. . . .” What are “nominalized forms, past perfect tenses, conditional phrases,” and why are they burdensome? At another point, Tan recalls a draft of The Joy Luck Club in which she wrote, “That was my mental quandary in its nascent state” (para. 20). Why does she call this “[a] terrible line”?
5. Although Tan clearly appeals to pathos through personal narration and characterization, she makes some appeals to logos. Identify them and describe their effect.
6. Tan divides the essay into three sections. Why? How do these resemble chapters?
7. How does Tan avoid stereotyping Asian Americans in general and Chinese in particular in this essay? If you believe she is guilty of some stereotyping, discuss examples.
8. Discuss how Tan broadens the essay’s relevance by going beyond just her personal experience and raising issues that would be germane to her audience.

Homework for Monday Night

Read and annotate:

We will watch this together in class:




Homework

Claims of Fact


Types of Claims Typically, we speak of three types of claims: claims of fact, claims of value, and claims of policy. Each type can be used to guide entire arguments, which we would call arguments of fact, arguments of value, and arguments of policy. While it is helpful to separate the three for analysis, in practice it is not always that simple. Indeed, it is quite common for an argument to include more than one type of claim, as you will see in the following examples. Claims of Fact Claims of fact assert that something is true or not true. You can’t argue whether Zimbabwe is in Africa or whether restaurants on Main Street serve more customers at breakfast than at lunch. These issues can be resolved and verified — in the first case by checking a map, in the second through observation or by checking sales figures. You can, however, argue that Zimbabwe has an unstable government or that restaurants on Main Street are more popular with older patrons than younger ones. Those statements are arguable: What does “unstable” mean? What does “popular” mean? Who is “older” and who is “younger”? Arguments of fact often pivot on what exactly is “factual.” Facts become arguable when they are questioned, when they raise controversy, when they challenge people’s beliefs. “It’s a fact that the Social Security program will go bankrupt by 2025” is a claim that could be developed in an argument of fact. Very often, so-called facts are a matter of interpretation. At other times, new “facts” call into question older ones. The claim that cell phones increase the incidence of brain tumors, for instance, requires sifting through new “facts” from medical research and scrutinizing who is carrying out the research, who is supporting it financially, and so on. Whenever you are evaluating or writing an argument of fact, it’s important to approach your subject with a healthy skepticism. In “Why Investing in Fast Food May Be a Good Thing,” Domini makes two claims of fact. The argument in paragraph 3 is guided by the claim of fact that “fast food is a way of life.” Is it? She supports this claim with sales statistics and information on the growth of this industry. Paragraph 4 is guided by the claim of fact that “fast food is a global phenomenon.” She supports this claim with an explanation of fast-food restaurants opening “in nearly every country” and a specific example discussing the changing diet in Greece. We commonly see arguments of fact that challenge stereotypes or social beliefs. For instance, in Chapter 8, Gender, there is an argument of fact by Matthias Mehl and his colleagues about whether women are more talkative than men (p. 557). Mehl and his colleagues recorded conversations and concluded that the differences are, in fact, very minor. Their findings call into question the stereotype that women are excessively chatty and more talkative than their male counterparts. Mehl’s essay is a clear argument of fact that re-evaluates earlier “facts” and challenges a social myth.
Claims of Value Perhaps the most common type of claim is a claim of value, which argues that something is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable. Of course, just like any other claim, a claim of value must be arguable. Claims of value may be personal judgments based on taste, or they may be more objective evaluations based on external criteria. For instance, if you argue that Brad Pitt is the best leading man in Hollywood, that is simply a matter of taste. The criteria for what is “best” and what defines a “leading man” are strictly personal. Another person could argue that while Pitt might be the best-looking actor in Hollywood, Leonardo DiCaprio is more highly paid and his movies tend to make more money. That is an evaluation based on external criteria — dollars and cents. To develop an argument from a claim of value, you must establish specific criteria or standards and then show to what extent the subject meets your criteria. Amy Domini’s argument is largely one of value as she supports her claim that investing in fast-food companies can be a positive thing. The very title of Domini’s essay suggests a claim of value: “Why Investing in Fast Food May Be a Good Thing.” She develops her argument by explaining the impact that such investing can have on what food choices are available, and what the impact of those choices is. Entertainment reviews — of movies, television shows, concerts, books — are good examples of arguments developed from claims of value. Take a look at this one, movie critic Roger Ebert’s 1977 review of the first Star Wars movie. He raved. Notice how he states his four-star claim — it’s a great movie! — in several ways throughout the argument and sets up his criteria at each juncture. Star Wars roger ebert Ebert’s claim of value. Stated more formally, it might read: “Star Wars is so good that it will completely draw you in.”
Activity for Homework:
• ACTIVITY • Find a review of a movie, a television show, a concert, an album or a song, or another form of popular culture. Identify the claim in the review. What criteria does the reviewer use to justify a thumbs-up or a thumbs-down?
Claims of Policy Anytime you propose a change, you’re making a claim of policy. It might be local: A group at your school proposes to raise money to contribute to a school in Haiti. You want your parents to let you spend more time with friends on weeknights. Or it might be a bigger issue such as a proposal for transitioning to alternative energy sources, a change in copyright laws for digital music, a shift in foreign policy, a change in legislation to allow former felons to vote. An argument of policy generally begins with a definition of the problem (claim of fact), explains why it is a problem (claim of value), and then explains the change that needs to happen (claim of policy). Also, keep in mind that while an argument of policy usually calls for some direct action to take place, it may be a recommendation for a change in attitude or viewpoint. Let’s take a look at the opening paragraphs of an argument of policy. In this piece, published in 1999 in Newsweek, Anna Quindlen argues for a change in attitude toward the treatment of mental illness. Notice how she combines claims of fact and value to ground her claim of policy — that is, that attitudes toward mental illness must change so that treatment options become more available.
Quindlen calls for “ending the ignorance” about mental health and its care. As she develops her argument, she supports this claim of policy by considering both personal examples and general facts about mental health in America. To arrive at this claim of policy, however, she first makes a claim of value — “There’s a plague on all our houses”: that is, this is a problem deserving of our attention. She then offers a claim of fact that demonstrates the scope of the problem: teenage suicide and homicide in the last decades have “exploded.” Granted, all three of these claims need to be explained with appropriate evidence, and Quindlen does that in subsequent paragraphs; but at the outset, she establishes claims of value and fact that lay the foundation for the claim of policy that is the main idea of her argument.
From Claim to Thesis To develop a claim into a thesis statement, you have to be more specific about what you intend to argue. In her essay “The C Word in the Hallways,” Anna Quindlen states her main idea explicitly: Yet one solution continues to elude us, and that is ending the ignorance about mental health, and moving it from the margins of care and into the mainstream where it belongs. As surely as any vaccine, this would save lives. The “policy” that Quindlen advocates changing is removing the stigma from mental illness so it can be properly treated. Her second sentence emphasizes her thesis by drawing an analogy: just as vaccines save lives by preventing disease, a shift in policy toward mental illness would save lives by preventing violence.
Sometimes in professional essays the claim may be implicit, but in the formal essays that you will write for your classes, the claim is traditionally stated explicitly as a one-sentence thesis statement that appears in the introduction of your argument. To be effective, a thesis statement must preview the essay by encapsulating in clear, unambiguous language the main point or points the writer intends to make. Let’s consider several different types of thesis statements: a closed thesis, an open thesis, and a thesis that includes the counterargument. Closed Thesis Statements A closed thesis is a statement of the main idea of the argument that also previews the major points the writer intends to make. It is “closed” because it limits the number of points the writer will make. For instance, here is a closed thesis on the appeal of the Harry Potter book series: The three-dimensional characters, exciting plot, and complex themes of the Harry Potter series make them not only legendary children’s books but enduring literary classics. This thesis asserts that the series constitutes a “literary classic” and specifies three reasons — characters, plot, and theme — each of which would be discussed in the argument. A closed thesis often includes (or implies) the word because. This one might have been written as follows: The Harry Potter series has become legendary children’s books and enduring literary classics because of its three-dimensional characters, exciting plot, and complex themes. Indeed, that statement might be a good working thesis. A closed thesis is a reliable way to focus a short essay, particularly one written under time constraints. Explicitly stating the points you’ll make can help you organize your thoughts when you are working against the clock, and it can be a way to address specific points that are required by the prompt or argument. Open Thesis Statements If, however, you are writing a longer essay with five, six, or even more main points, then an open thesis is probably more effective. An open thesis is one that does not list all the points the writer intends to cover in an essay. If you have six or seven points in an essay, for instance, stringing them all out in the thesis will be awkward; plus, while a reader can remember two or three main points, it’s confusing to keep track of a whole string of points made way back in an opening paragraph. For instance, you might argue that the Harry Potter series is far from an enduring classic because you think the main characters are either all good or all bad rather than a bit of both, the minor characters devolve into caricatures, the plot is repetitious and formulaic, the magic does not follow a logical system of rules, and so on. Imagine trying to line all those ideas up in a sentence or two having any clarity and grace at all. By making the overall point without actually stating every subpoint, an open thesis can guide an essay without being cumbersome: The popularity of the Harry Potter series demonstrates that simplicity trumps complexity when it comes to the taste of readers, both young and old. Counterargument Thesis Statements A variant of the open and closed thesis is the counterargument thesis, in which a summary of a counterargument usually qualified by although or but precedes the writer’s opinion. This type of thesis has the advantage of immediately addressing the counterargument. Doing so may make an argument seem both stronger and more reasonable. It may also create a seamless transition to a more thorough concession and refutation of the counterargument later in the argument. Using the Harry Potter example again, let’s look at a counterargument thesis: Although the Harry Potter series may have some literary merit, its popularity has less to do with storytelling than with merchandising. This thesis concedes a counterargument that the series “may have some literary merit” before refuting that claim by saying that the storytelling itself is less popular than the movies, toys, and other merchandise that the books inspired. The thesis promises some discussion of literary merit and a critique of its storytelling (concession and refutation) but will ultimately focus on the role of the merchandising machine in making Harry Potter a household name. Note that the thesis that considers a counterargument can also lead to a position that is a modification or qualification rather than an absolute statement of support or rejection. If, for instance, you were asked to discuss whether the success of the Harry Potter series has resulted in a reading renaissance, this thesis would let you respond not with a firm “yes” or “no,” but with a qualification of “in some respects.” It would allow you to ease into a critique by first recognizing its strengths before leveling your criticism that the popularity was the result of media hype rather than quality and thus will not result in a reading renaissance.
• ACTIVITY • Develop a thesis statement that could focus an argument in response to each of the following prompts. Discuss why you think that the structure (open, closed, counterargument) you chose would be appropriate or effective.
1. Same-sex classrooms have gone in and out of favor in public education. Write an essay explaining why you would support or oppose same-sex classrooms for public schools in grades 10 through 12.
2. Write an essay supporting, challenging, or qualifying English author E. M. Forster’s position in the following quotation: “I hate the idea of causes, and if I had to choose between betraying my country and betraying my friend, I hope I should have the guts to betray my country.”
3. Today’s world is full of conflicts and controversies. Choose a local or global issue, and write an essay that considers multiple viewpoints and proposes a solution or compromise.
. Write an essay explaining why you agree or disagree with the following quotation: “Advertising degrades the people it appeals to; it deprives them of their will to choose.”
5. Plagiarism is rampant in public high schools and colleges. In fact, some people argue that the definition of plagiarism has changed with the proliferation of the Internet. Write an essay explaining what you believe the appropriate response of a teacher should be to a student who turns in a plagiarized essay or exam.




CHAPTER 12 • THE ENVIRONMENT

Grammar as Rhetoric and Style Cumulative, Periodic, and Inverted Sentences


Most of the time, writers of English use the following standard sentence patterns:
Subject/Verb (SV) My father cried. — Terry Tempest Williams
Subject/Verb/Subject complement (SVC) Even the streams were now lifeless.
Subject/Verb/Direct object (SVO) We believed her. — Rachel Carson — Terry Tempest Williams
Here are examples of both techniques. Coordinating patterns S V C Yet every one of these disasters has actually happened somewhere, and many S V O real communities have already suffered a substantial number of them. — Rachel Carson
Subordinating one pattern to another S V S V O And when they arrived on the edge of Mercury, they carried all the butter- I f lies of a summer day in their wombs. — Terry Tempest Williams
The downside to sticking with standard sentence patterns, coordinating them, or subordinating them is that too many standard sentences in a row become monotonous. So writers break out of the standard patterns now and then by using a more unusual pattern, such as the cumulative sentence, the periodic sentence, or the inverted sentence. When you use one of these sentence patterns, you call attention to that sentence because its pattern contrasts significantly with the pattern of the sentences surrounding it. You can use unusual sentence patterns to emphasize a point, as well as to control sentence rhythm, increase tension, or create a dramatic impact. In other words, using the unusual pattern helps you avoid monotony in your writing.

Cumulative Sentence

The cumulative, or so- called loose, sentence begins with a standard sentence pattern (shown here in blue) and adds multiple details after it. The details can take the form of subordinate clauses or different kinds of phrases. These details accumulate, or pile up — hence, the name cumulative.

The women moved through the streets as winged messengers, twirling around each other in slow motion, peeking inside homes and watching the easy sleep of men and women. — Terry Tempest Williams

Here’s another cumulative sentence, this one from Michael Pollan. Venture farther, though, and you come to regions of the supermarket where the very notion of species seems increasingly obscure: the canyons of breakfast cereals and condiments; the freezer cases stacked with “home meal replacements” and bagged platonic peas; the broad expanses of soft drinks and towering cliffs of snacks; the unclassifiable Pop- Tarts and Lunchables; the frankly synthetic coffee whiteners and the Linnaeus- defying Twinkie.

Look closely at this cumulative sentence by Lewis Thomas: We have grown into everywhere, spreading like a new growth over the entire surface, touching and affecting every other kind of life, incorporating ourselves. The independent clause in the sentence focuses on the growth of humanity. Then the sentence accumulates a string of modifiers about the extent of that growth. Using a cumulative sentence allows Thomas to include all of these modifiers in one smooth sentence, rather than using a series of shorter sentences that repeat grown. Furthermore, this accumulation of modifiers takes the reader into the scene just as the writer experiences it, one detail at a time.

Periodic Sentence

The periodic sentence begins with multiple details and holds off a standard sentence pattern — or at least its predicate (shown here in blue) — until the end. The following periodic sentence by Lewis Thomas presents its subject, human beings, followed by an accumulation of modifiers, with the predicate coming at the end. Human beings, large terrestrial metazoans, fired by energy from microbial symbionts lodged in their cells, instructed by tapes of nucleic acid stretching back to the earliest live membranes, informed by neurons essentially the same as all the other neurons on earth, sharing structures with mastodons and lichens, living off the sun, are now in charge, running the place, for better or worse.

In the following periodic sentence, Ralph Waldo Emerson packs the front of the sentence with phrases providing elaborate detail: Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. The vivid descriptions engage us, so that by the end of the sentence we can feel (or at least imagine) the exhilaration Emerson feels. By placing the descriptions at the beginning of the sentence, Emerson demonstrates how nature can ascend from the physical (“snow puddles,” “clouded sky”) to the psychological (“without . . . thoughts of . . . good fortune”), and finally to the
spiritual (“perfect exhilaration”).

Could Emerson have written this as a cumulative sentence? He probably could have by moving things around — “I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration as I was crossing . . .” — and then providing the details. In some ways, the impact of the descriptive detail would be similar. Whether you choose to place detail at the beginning or end of a sentence often depends on the surrounding sentences. Unless you have a good reason, though, you probably should not put one cumulative sentence after another or one periodic sentence after another. Instead, by shifting sentence patterns, you can vary sentence length and change the rhythm of your sentences. Finally, perhaps the most famous example of the periodic sentence in modern En glish prose is the fourth sentence in paragraph 14 of Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” (p. 280):

But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate- filled policemen curse, kick, and even kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six- year- old daughter why she can’t go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little mental sky, and see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five- year- old son who is asking, “Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?”; when you take a cross- country drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading “white” and “colored”; when your first name becomes “nigger,” your middle name becomes “boy” (however old you are) and your last name becomes “John,” and your wife and mother are never given the respected title “Mrs.”; when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and are plagued with inner fears and outer resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of “nobodiness” — then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait.


Inverted Sentence

In every standard English sentence pattern, the subject comes before the verb (SV). But if a writer chooses, he or she can invert the standard sentence pattern and put the verb before the subject (VS). This is called an inverted sentence.

Here is an example: Everywhere was a shadow of death. Controlled exponential growth is what you’d really like to see. — Rachel Carson — Joy Williams What’s at stake as they busy themselves are your tax dollars and mine, and ultimately our freedom too. — E. O. Wilson The inverted sentence pattern slows the reader down, because it is simply more difficult to comprehend inverted word order. Take this example from Emerson’s “Nature”: V S In the woods, is perpetual youth. In this example, Emerson calls attention to “woods” and “youth,” minimizing the verb “is” and juxtaposing a place (“woods”) with a state of being (“youth”). Consider the difference if he had written: S V Perpetual youth is in the woods. This “revised” version is easier to read quickly, and even though the meaning is essentially the same, the emphasis is different. In fact, to understand the full impact, we need to consider the sentence in its context. If you look back at Emerson’s essay “Nature,” you’ll see that his sentence is a short one among longer, more complex sentences. That combination of inversion and contrasting length makes the sentence — and the idea it conveys — stand out.


• EXERCISE 1
• For each of the following, craft a periodic, cumulative, or inverted sentence by filling in the blanks.
1. Among the tangle of weeds and brush were
2. Hoping, knowing . , but realizing the candidate , .
3. All his life he would remember that fateful moment when the fish ,
4. If you .
5. Into the clouds soared 6. Only when •

• EXERCISE 3 • The following paragraph from The Future of Life by E. O. Wilson consists of three sentences: a simple declarative sentence, then a periodic sentence, and finally a cumulative sentence. Keep the first one as it is; then rewrite the periodic sentence as cumulative and the cumulative as periodic. Compare the two paragraphs. Discuss the relationship among the sentences in each paragraph and the rhetorical effect of syntax on meaning and tone.

The guiding principles of a united environmental movement must be, and eventually will be, chiefly long- term. If two hundred years of history of environmentalism have taught us anything, it is that a change of heart occurs when people look beyond themselves to others, and then to the rest of life. It is strengthened when they also expand their view of landscape, from parish to nation and beyond, and their sweep of time from their own life spans to multiple generations and finally to the extended future history of humankind. (para. 18)


Homework

Use the Online Textbook to locate, read and create a Soapstone on the following speech. Highlight pathos, logos and ethos.

Go to Chapter Two, Close Reading, locate the following text. Be prepared to take the quiz at the beginning of class on Friday.

Note: Problem-solve your way through this process. Use the online textbook page to navigate your way through. There are visual links in chapter two that may be of interest to you. Use your time to find your way through this valuable resource. If all else fails, your back-up plan is below.


THE SPEECH OF QUEEN ELIZABETH TO HER ARMY ENCAMPED AT TILBURY, 1588


I remember in '88 waiting upon the Earl of Leicester at Tilbury camp, and in '89, going into Portugal with my noble master, the Earl of Essex, I learned somewhat fit to be imparted to your grace.
The queen lying in the camp one night, guarded with her army, the old treasurer, Burleigh, came thither and delivered to the earl the examination of Don Pedro, who was taken and brought in by Sir Francis Drake, which examination the earl of Leicester delivered unto me to publish to the army in my next sermon. The sum of it was this.
Don Pedro, being asked what was the intent of their coming, stoutly answered the lords: What, but to subdue your nation and root it out.
Good, said the lords, and what meant you then to do with the catholics? He answered, We meant to send them (good men) directly unto heaven, as all that are heretics to hell. Yea, but, said the lords, what meant you to do with your whips of cord and wire? (Whereof they had great store in their ships.) What? said he, we meant to whip you heretics to death that hare assisted my master's rebels and done such dishonour to our catholic king and people. Yea, but what would you have done, said they, with their young children? They, said he, which were above seven years old should hare gone the way their fathers went, the rest should have lived, branded in the forehead with the letter L for Lutheran, to perpetual bondage.
This, I take God to witness, I received of those great lords upon examination taken by the council, and by commandment delivered it to the army.
The queen the next morning rode through all the squadrons of her army, as armed Pallas, attended by noble footmen, Leicester, Essex, and Norris, then lord marshall, and divers other great lords. Where she made an excellent oration to her army, which the next day after her departure, I was commanded to re-deliver to all the army together, to keep a public fast.
Her words were these.
My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear. I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safe guard in the loyal hearts and good will of my subjects, and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all, to lay down my life for my God and for my kingdom and for my people, my honour, and my blood, even in the dust. I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm; the which, rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know, already for your forwardness, you have deserved rewards and crowns; and we do assure you, in the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the meantime my lieutenant-general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject, not doubting but by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.

From a letter by Dr. Leonel Sharp to the Duke of Buckingham after 1623 (spelling moderized)





Homework

Locate Chapter 11 Pop Culture in the Online Text Book, then NPR "Everything Bad is Good For You" and create a SOAPStone and Ethos, Pathos and Logos analysis as you annotate the argument.

Here is the link if the is not working http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4663852 ; however, you will not get valuable resources if you take this path first.

Are Americans getting dumber or smarter? Author Steven Johnson discusses his book Everything Bad Is Good for You. He argues that the complexity of modern TV shows and video games might make today's media consumer sharper than those of 30 years ago.

The link will allow you to listen to the original broadcast.


Homework Due Thursday, March 6, 2014

Perform a SOAPStone and T-Bar Analysis using the information provided below:

Text:





Homework Due Tuesday, March 11, 2014

Perform an analysis of the following using SOAPStone and T-Bar; remember to include literary terms and textual support.




Homework

Barbie Doll Marge Piercy american poet, novelist, and activist marge Piercy (b. 1936) grew up in Michigan in a working class family during the Depression. She graduated from northwestern University with an ma and went on to write more than thirty books, including novels and volumes of poetry. She is known for her highly personal free verse and her themes of feminism and social protest. “Barbie Doll,” from her 1973 collection To Be of Use, comments on the popular icon — and children’s toy — of the same name.

Barbie Doll

This girlchild was born as usual

and presented dolls that did pee-pee

and miniature GE stoves and irons

and wee lipsticks the color of cherry candy.

Then in the magic of puberty, a classmate said:

You have a great big nose and fat legs.


She was healthy, tested intelligent,

possessed strong arms and back,

abundant sexual drive and manual dexterity.

She went to and fro apologizing.

Everyone saw a fat nose on thick legs.


She was advised to play coy,

exhorted to come on hearty,

exercise, diet, smile and wheedle.

Her good nature wore out

like a fan belt.

So she cut off her nose and her legs

and offered them up.


In the casket displayed on satin she lay

with the undertaker's cosmetics painted on,

a turned-up putty nose,

dressed in a pink and white nightie.

Doesn't she look pretty? everyone said.

Consummation at last.

To every woman a happy ending.
Marge Piercy

Create a SOAPStone on the poem

and answer the following questions:

Barbie Doll Questions.JPG



Homework

Read and answers questions:

Being a Man 1.JPG

Being a Man 2.JPG
Being a Man 3.JPG

Being a Man 4.JPG

Homework

Read and answer questions

The Spirit of Education 1.JPG

The Spirit of Education 2.JPG


Homework Due

Answer three and five and cite examples.

Nissan Motor Company !.JPG
Nissan Motor Company 2.JPG

Homework

Read the information, analyze the cartoons, and answer all questions on the following:

What I Learned One.JPG

What I Learned Two.JPG
What I Learned Three.JPG
What I Learned Four.JPG

What I Learned Five.JPG



Homework

Read all pages and answer questions 1,3,4, in complete sentences, citing examples to bolster your response.

Just Walk on By 1.JPG
Just Walk on By 2.JPG
Just Walk on By 3.JPG
Just Walk on By 4.JPG
Just Walk on By Questions.JPG

Homework Due Wednesday, April 2nd

Take a critical stance on Brett Staples, "Black Men in Public Spaces" as you write an essay in which you determine how the author makes his point through literary devices in his essay. Be sure to avoid summary and instead use textual support as you bolster your claim. Your thesis should reflect an opinion who prove without the use of "I" or informal language. The essay must be handwritten.